r95100 was born on October 21, 1995 at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC). His mother was r89114 and his father was r84107.
Monkeys at WRPRC are designated with serial numbers that tell something about the animal. r95100 was the 100th rhesus monkey born at WRPRC in 1995. His mother was the 114th rhesus born there in 1985 and his father the 107th rhesus monkey born there in 1984. WRPRC has about 1200 monkeys (mostly rhesus monkeys) on hand at any one time. The population is stable which means that many are dying every year.
r95100 weighed 0.510 kilograms when he was born. Thats about one pound.
He was first used for research on January 19, 1996, when he was less than three months old. Blood was taken.
He gained weight steadily, and on June 20, 1996, he was up to 1.390 kilograms.
On June 30, his weight dropped to 1.1 kilogram and was reported to have diarrhea.
They began treating him with the antibiotic erythromycin, but the diarrhea continued and he failed to gain weight. On August 21 he still weighed 1.1 kilogram.
The erythromycin was continued daily, and on August 26, his weight had inched up to 1.16 kilos.
On September 4, he was still receiving the erythromycin twice daily. His weight had continued to inch up and he now weighed 1.17 kilos. His medical history notes that he had a history of vomiting white material possibly milk. The record notes: loose stool, light brown in color. well (sic) wean from milk. He was given a multivitamin and later that day noticed to have yellow loose stool.
The erythromycin was stopped on September 5. Still on September 9, the record notes that they took a bit more of his blood and that his weight was now 1.55 kilograms.
On November 11, his weight is recorded to be 1.81 kilos.
On the following day, he is anesthetized with 30 mg. of Ketamine delivered intravenously, and tattooed with his serial number.
On December 9, he weighs 1.98 kilos.
On January 9, he is up to 2.3 kilos.
On March 11, 14cc of blood was taken for the project: Immunobiology of SIV Infection.
On March 31 he weighed 2.49 kilograms.
On April 24 he had another 14 cc drawn, this time for the project : Immunobiology of SIV and SHIV.
On May 15, another 14 cc for: Immunobiology of SIV Infection.
On May 21, he was treated for a prolapsed rectum. His colon was sewn back in place with a purse string suture. A note from the same day records: trying to prolapse again.
On May 22, the suture was removed and an ointment was applied to his anus.
On May 23, it is noted that his rectum is trying to prolapse again.
He is treated with penicillin daily through May 27.
On May 28, 13 cc of blood is taken and again on May 29, another 7 cc is taken.
From May 29, to April 2, he is administered enrofloxacin daily. And on April 2, the following remark appears: Removed purse string suture from anus: animal is bright, alert, and responsive. Eats well and has normal stools. He is reported to weigh 2.23 kilos.
On July 8,more blood is taken, this time for WRPRC Director, Joe Kemnitzs project: DNA Profiling of Primates Used in Biomedical Research.
It is worth noting here that Kemnitz has made spurious claims about the importance of DNA profiles of monkeys in the past. In 1997, a whistle blower provided documents from WRPRC that proved unequivocally that WRPRC had been hiding the fact that they had secretly removed over 200 monkeys from the zoo and sold them to labs throughout the country as well as killed them in WRPRCs own labs. This was a direct violation of agreements WRPRC had signed with the local county government that no monkeys from the zoo would ever be harmed in biomedical research. When first contacted about one, then another of these protected monkeys, Kemnitz made the claim that it was these two monkeys special genetic characteristics that allowed the Center to experiment on and kill them. When confronted with the other 199 records, Kemnitz quickly changed his story. Further, those familiar with the zoo monkeys noted that the large number of males and females living together there made any claim of knowledge regarding any of the offsprings genetic characteristics laughable.
Throughout the remainder of 1997 and through 1998, r95100 had blood drawn for one study or another eleven times and stomach fluid taken once.
Every time blood was taken from r95100, he was immobilized with Ketamine. Ketamine used to be used on humans; its not any longer. Ketamine causes hallucinations as well as a burning sensation when injected.
The principal effects are the result of the drug crossing the blood brain barrier, to bind with receptors in the brain. Muscle tone increases. Heart and pulse rate increase. The drug can cause hallucinations, both visual and auditory. The user appears numbed to the outside world. Awareness, although altered may only be partial. Auditory perception is said to be narrowed. The ability to respond may be limited by muscle spasm and rigidity. The user may appear sedated, if not disturbed by the effects of the drug. Nausea and vomiting may occur. Some degree of paralysis can occur. The effects of the drug may be dependent on environmental factors.
Ketamine use is associated with flashbacks and other psychological problems which become more frequent with long term use. Memory loss and dysfunction are common. The development of psychotic illness in vulnerable users is a real danger.
Ketamine can be a very unpleasant drug. It is contraindicated for anyone with a medical history of heart disease, high blood pressure and mental illness. [From: Drug by Drug http://www.drugtest.freeserve.co.uk/DbyDentry.htm]
The primate centers use gallons of Ketamine; whether it all ends up in the monkeys is never discussed.
On February 5, 1999, r95100 was reported to have self-inflicted skin lesions. This is a politically correct way to say that the stress of lab life had become so great for r95100 that he had begun chewing on, or scratching his own arms. The more accurate term is self-mutilation and it is seen in very few other environments. The primate labs tend to hush up this side of the business.
Another note from February 5 states: Closed with surgical glue; lacerations on calf possible self-biter; areas of over-grooming.
Over-grooming is a nice way of saying that r95100 is pulling out his own hair.
On April 13, 1999, we find the following remark: Self trauma right and left arms over biceps, muscles and under left arm. Label cage self biter and reduce room stress or pre-treat with diazapam [Valium]
According to WRPRC documents, on June 6, 2000, nearly five years old, r95100 was shipped to the University of Baltimore. It was noted: History diarrhea, rectal prolapse, inappropriate (self-directed) behavior, 2 3 cm healed lesions on inner aspect of right and left arms; very thin pelage legs and tail; overgroomed; no history of SIV infection; wt.=5.75 kg.
The question might be posed: How does this record compare with the WRPRC claim that: Much of our center's research is noninvasiveit does not harm the animal physically or psychologically in any way? Certainly, r95100s life story runs counter to this claim.
r95100s advocate was not content to let this be the end of his story. She followed up with WRPRC and asked about the University of Baltimore. She received an interesting reply that is indicative of all the RPRCs records keeping and public reports:
Per our director, the monkey in question was transferred to the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute. I apologize that the name of the institution was not clear on the
documents we previously to sent you.
Senior Editor and Public Information Officer
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center,
University of Wisconsin-Madison Graduate School
and National Institutes of Health--National Center for Research Resources
1220 Capitol Court
Madison, WI 53715-1299
Phone: (608) 263-7024
Fax: (608) 263-3524
Good luck r95100, our thoughts are with you.