National Primate Research Center
2003/04 Annual Progress Report
If you are wearing a Primate Freedom Tag, the
monkey on your tag may be a research victim at the California National
Primate Research Center (CNPRC) in Davis, California. Many hundreds
of people are wearing primate Freedom Tags from the CNPRC.
Over 3300 primates including squirrel monkeys, pig-tailed macaques,
bonnet macaques, crab-eating macaques, rhesus macaques, and titi
monkeys are experimented on day in and day out. This is a sad place.
CRPRC has been surprisingly responsive to the letters
and phone calls from Primate Freedom Tag wearers requesting information
about the primate on their Freedom Tag. They seem to see nothing
wrong with harming animals shown, repeatedly, to have minds and
emotions very like our own.
about the types of research (below) being funded by the National
Institutes of Health conducted at the CNPRC. Most researchers (e-mail
addresses provided) are conducting many studies at any one time.
you, as taxpayers, are paying their salaries.
There are over 160 NIH funded projects underway at the moment.
AMARAL, DAVID G. <firstname.lastname@example.org>
damages areas of monkeys' brains and then watches how they get along
with other monkeys. He is planning to remove specific regions of
the brains of neonatal monkeys and hopes that they will seem autistic
as they mature. (Meet
BARRY, PETER A. < email@example.com
> reports on his dissection of a young rhesus monkey he killed which
had been ill with a disease specific to rhesus macaques.
BARTHOLD, STEPHEN W. <firstname.lastname@example.org>
trains students to be vivisectors.
BRITTEN, KENNETH H. <
email@example.com > says, "[W]e train monkeys
on tasks demanding the analysis of visual motion, and precisely
measure the signals in these cortical areas with single cell recording
techniques, or alternatively, we perturb the signals in these areas
using very small electrical [shocks to their brain], and measure
the effects on the animals' behavior." (Meet
BUCKPITT, ALAN < firstname.lastname@example.org
> is forcing rhesus macaques to inhale toxic chemicals. He states,
"Although cigarette smoking is a major etiologic factor in these
[lung] diseases, exposure to chemicals in the workplace and in the
environment may be important as well."
CANFIELD, DON R. < email@example.com
> reports, "We are in the process of attempting to infect
rhesus macaques with human strains of H pylori." It is believed
that H pylori is a cause of some gastric ulcers.
CAPITANIO, JOHN P. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> is sucking up AIDS research dollars by attempting to determine
whether rhesus monkeys with certain personalities will get sicker
and die more quickly of SIV than monkeys with different
Capitanio is worthy of considerable scrutiny. As the president
of the American Society of Primatologists he is an exemplar of what
primate researchers see as the epitome of a "good scientist."
A good starting point for understanding what this really means is
his recent paper: "Cognitive
style: problem solving by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) reared
with living or inanimate substitute mothers." (Meet
CHALUPA, LEO M. < email@example.com
> studies eye development in macaque monkey embryos.(Chalupa's
CHRISTE, KARI <firstname.lastname@example.org>
notes, "Measles is a highly infectious paramyxovirus that
can cause an epizootic with almost 100% morbidity and up to 27%
mortality in rhesus macaques. Due to the cost prohibitive nature
of measles vaccination, many primate facilities elect not to immunize
their colonies." Christe is trying to determine whether "canine
distemper-measles vaccine was as effective as the currently used,
but cost-prohibitive, measles vaccine in protecting rhesus macaques."
CHUANG, RONALD Y. <email@example.com>
"Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and rhesus monkeys
(Macaca mulatta) as an animal model system for studying viral pathogenesis
and AIDS, the objective of the current proposal is to continue our
previous studies in evaluating the effects of morphine dependence
on the viremia and on disease development after inoculation with
SIVmac239, a molecular clone of SIV."
COWAN, MORTON J. is transplanting kidneys in young monkeys.
He notes, "...solid organ transplantation in children
is plagued by organ shortage, rejection, and complications of
immunosuppression." and then goes on to report that,
"...control animals showed sonographic and histologic evidence
of severe, acute rejection with massive cortical necrosis and graft
failure one week post-transplant." This is the typical
blood sacrifice to the alter of sacred Science.
DANDEKAR, SATYA < firstname.lastname@example.org
> is another of the multitude of researchers infecting rhesus
macaques with SIV to record various parameters of their
resultant decline toward death.
DEGREGORIO, MICHAEL W. < email@example.com
> is studying two drugs currently used to treat breast cancer
in humans. He reports, "[W]e have treated a number of
rhesus macaques with tamoxifen and toremifene,
and we have biopsied the livers and uteri of these animals
during treatment." Typically, such biopsies are repeated
EBERLING, JAMIE L.<firstname.lastname@example.org>
is trying to determine whether PET scans can be used to monitor
the results of brain injections of nerve growth factor in aged monkeys
of some undisclosed species.
ENAS, JOEL D. writes: "The primate model is well suited
for preclinical PET studies based on the anatomic and functional
similarities with the human brain." With the chemicals he is
studying, he "had previously demonstrated uptake in the rat
brain.... When studied in the primate, we found that there was little
or no radioactivity localized in the brain. These compounds were
not able to cross the blood brain barrier. While this result was
unexpected it is not totally surprising as the distribution of radiophamaceutical
can be highly species dependent."
ENDERS, ALLEN C. < email@example.com
> is subjecting female rhesus monkeys to hours of chemical (?)
restraint while monitoring a model of the early stages of embryo
implantation in the uterine wall.
FULLER, CHARLES A. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> wins the Egregiously Meaningless Research Dollar Squander Award.
He locked rhesus monkeys into a cyclotron and spuns them for months
(?) to create an environment with twice the normal gravitational
force. Prior to locking monkeys into this spinning prison cell he
surgically implanted telemetry which allowed him to, "record
PTS , video, temperature, heart rate, activity and drinking continuously,
as well as to collect urine, from rhesus individually housed on
this centrifuge." PTS is the psychomotor test system
developed at the University of Georgia Language Research Center.
He was able to vary the amount of light exposure the monkeys received.
He wrote: "We designed and built dipole antennae contained
within PVC piping. As an additional benefit, they are used
as a perch, providing an additional source of environmental enrichment."
As if he cared. [Meet
GARDNER, MURRAY B. <email@example.com>
continues to test new SIV vaccines. Monkeys he has made
sick are still dying.
GERSHWIN, LAUREL J. <firstname.lastname@example.org>
says, "The objective of this preliminary study is to develop
a primate model to study human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
infection... To develop this model we used a mouse-adapted human
RSV isolate and infected an infant rhesus monkey by aerosol. The
monkey was monitored daily for development of clinical signs and
virus shedding was evaluated daily by culturing swabs taken from
the nasal cavity. Results: The monkey failed to become infected."
GILBERT, WILLIAM < email@example.com
> states, "Four chronically catheterized rhesus monkey fetuses
at 125q0.5 days of gestation with ligated esophagi and
catheterized trachea were studied. Radioactive technetium -99m
(TC -99m ) was injected into the amniotic cavity followed by a series
of blood and [amniotic fluid] withdrawals over a period of four
hours to tract the distribution of the radioactivity."
GOLUB, MARI S. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> is force feeding aluminum to pregnant guinea pigs and adding
aluminum to the food of mice.
GRAY, CHARLES M. <email@example.com>
Places electrodes into cats' and monkeys' brains. He is studying
vision. He says the results from these experiments will lead to
HAVEL, PETER J. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> reports that, "Leptin is a newly discovered
hormone." And what should be done with a recently discovered
hormone? Havel has received public funds to inject it
into obese and lean rhesus monkeys which are locked in cages
in sealed chambers equipped with flowmeters and instruments
for measuring oxygen and carbon dioxide.
HENDRICKX, ANDREW G. < email@example.com
> poisons fetal macaques.
HITCHCOCK, MARGARET E. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> reports that a vaccine against the virus which causes human
genital warts can be positively affected when used in conjunction
with cholera toxin. Unfortunately, her time has been spent studying
human genital warts in rhesus macaques which seem unaffected by
cholera. Humans on the other hand...
HORTON, JONATHAN C. takes infant monkeys by cesarian to
study their eye development.
HUFFMAN, KELLY J. is interested in the area of rhesus
and marmoset brains associated with bilateral coordination of the
hands and manual dexterity. To pusue his interest, he in implanting
eletrodes into their brains and injecting various chemicals into
them. He claims that, "The results of these experiments will provide
critical information on a cortical area that may be involved in
the integration of somatic inputs and motor outputs." Sounds like
HYDE, DALLAS M. < email@example.com
> damages rhesus monkeys' lungs with ozone. Then he kills them.
JACOBS, GERALD H. Writes, "A noninvasive electrophysiological
procedure, electroretinogram flicker photometry, was used to measure
the photopigments in Titi monkeys." Titis are notable for their
gentleness. While Jacobs' study many be "noninvasive"
in the sense that he is not performing surgery on the monkeys, he
must be restraining them during his experiments. Electroretinogram
flicker photometry recordings are made by embedding an electrode
in a contact lens and placing a reference electrode at some other
convenient place on the head.
JAGUST, WILLIAM < firstname.lastname@example.org
> is testing an experimental radiographic tracer in six rhesus
monkeys. He chemically damaged two of the monkeys' brains for his
KRUBITZER, LEAH A. <email@example.com>
"Complex behaviors and cognitive process such as those observed
in humans and other primates are marked by increases in brain size,
particularly in the forebrain.... The purpose of the present proposal
is to investigate some aspects of forebrain expansion in the somatosensory
system in two species of primates, macaque monkeys and marmoset
monkeys..." Essentially, she plans to put electrodes into their
brains and inject some chemicals into their brains as well. Interestingly,
she says she will be using two primate species, but her abstract
lists three: Callithricidae, Macaca fascicularis, and
LASLEY, BILL L. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> is using crab-eating macaques as he tests various anti-fertility
vaccines for use in underdeveloped countries.
LERCHE, NICHOLAS W. < email@example.com
> reports, "SRV/D is a serious pathogen of macaques,
causing significant morbidity and mortality secondary to viral-induced
immune suppression.... A small group of naturally infected macaques
are maintained to develop and validate new diagnostic methods."
This is similar to keeping syphilitic humans around so we can
develop and validate new diagnostic methods.
LONNERDAL, BO < firstname.lastname@example.org
> measured iron and copper levels in 24 infant rhesus macaques fed
on three different infant formulas. Lonnerdal reports,
"Further studies are needed in human infants to verify the findings."
Why were the monkey studies needed at all?
LUCIW, PAUL A. < email@example.com
> is another federal welfare recipient paid to kill monkeys with
MARTHAS, MARTA L. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> writes, "Infants were inoculated orally with a high dose
of SIV within 3 days of birth. This oral dose of
SIV infected four naive neonatal rhesus macaques and all developed
high virus levels in peripheral blood and fatal immunodeficiency."
These four babies were the blood sacrifice to $cience. Marthas
knew, as she infected them, that she was killing them in a manner
which would cause long-term suffering. In the government funded
religion of $cience, blood sacrifice is termed: the control.
MASON, WILLIAM A. < email@example.com
> In what is likely labeled part of CRPRC¹s
conservation effort, Mason states, "Behavioral
and physiological responses to varying periods of separation from
the pairmate and effects of separation on responses to strangers
and to reunion with the pairmate have been examined."
He screws with squirrel and titti monkeys. Mason is
a past president of the American Society of Primatologists, a past
student of harry harlow's and a coauthor of the paper cited in John
Capitanio's entry above.
MENDOZA, SALLY P. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> uses the term "psychological well-being"
in the title of one of her projects, but seems intent on determining
how to increase reproductive rates of squirrel monkeys. The
resulting increased infant production and resultant increase in
torture to these babies underscores the fallacious nature of any
studies purporting to study psychological well-being at
the RPRCs. Sally's new study exposes the reality of her interests.
She writes, "We have identified two simple social manipulations
that result in long-term disruption of pituitary-adrenal regulation.
Mate separation in titi monkeys produces long-term elevations in
cortisol; group formation in squirrel monkeys produces long-term
reductions in cortisol. Comparison of the two species affords a
unique opportunity to ask whether chronic stress subsumes multiple
MC CHESNEY, MICHAEL B. < email@example.com
> plans to infect some rhesus macaques with SIV and
others with measles. He will compare the disease progression and
document the expected recoveries from measles and expected deaths
MCCOWAN, BRENDA. is studying chuck calls in squirrel monkeys.
She suggests that learning may play an important role in the acquisition
of communication skills in squirrel monkeys.
MCDONALD, RUTH J. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> has discovered that instilling free DNA directly into rhesus
macaques' lungs does not seem to harm them. She discovered this
by killing monkeys after the infusion and examining their lungs.
MERRITT, T. ALLEN cut a hole in the windpipes of new
born infant rhesus macaques and squirted their feces into their
lungs. This caused pneumonia. Some babies he tried to cure.
Others he allowed to die to make sure that the natural laws of the
universe had not changed recently. Merritt seems not to be receiving
any federal funding at the moment. He is now working at St. Charles
Medical Center and Central Oregon Pediatric Associates in Bend,
MILLER, CHRISTOPHER J. < email@example.com
> is into the big-time AIDS money. He had 15 funded studies underway
in 2000. A few titles: VAGINAL TRANSMISSION OF SIV; VAGINAL
IMMUNOLOGY IN MENSTRUAL CYCLES; SIV CHALLENGE OF SHIV
[SHIV is a laboratory creation which combines HIV and SIV]
INOCULATED RHESUS MACAQUES: VAGINAL TRANSMISSION; IMMUNIZATION AGAINST
GENITAL TRANSMISSION OF SIV; IMMUNIZATION AGAINST GENITAL
TRANSMISSION OF SIV; HETEROSEXUAL TRANSMISSION OF AIDS SIMIAN
MODEL; COMPARISON OF IV VERSUS MUCOSAL INOCULATION W/
SIV; and on and on.
MURPHY, FREDERICK A. <firstname.lastname@example.org>
seems to be charged with oversight of the center's colony of "aging
MYLES, DIANA G. <email@example.com>
On a planet reeling from the demands of over six billion humans,
Myles is spending her time attempting to improve the success of
"assisted reproduction". Simultaneously, she is trying
to develop a sperm immunization for use as birth control by men.
She is testing this on monkeys.
OSBURN, BENNIE I. <firstname.lastname@example.org>
"The California Regional Primate Research Center (CRPRC) does
not currently have adequate facilities to conduct Biosafety Level
3 (BSL-3) research, due to lack of BSL-3 animal housing space....
This facility is necessary to provide animal research space to accommodate
expanding research programs in tuberculosis, Borna Disease virus,
as well as new viral vectors in gene therapy research. In addition,
the new BSL-3 space will allow for expansion of CRPRC's retroviral
research program into further research with recombinant HIV, SIV
and viral co-infections with SIV infected animals."
OVERSTREET, JAMES W. < email@example.com
> is hoping to develop a vaccine against macaque sperm. Is he
worried about becoming infected?
PINKERTON, KENT E. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> forces monkeys to inhale dust for 28 days at a time. He
then studies the damage to their lungs.
PLOPPER, CHARLES G. < email@example.com
> writes, "The overall goal of [my] project is to define
the mechanisms of acute injury to the respiratory system [in
the rhesus monkey] produced by inhalation of oxidant air pollutants,
such as ozone, and to define the process by which the respiratory
system develops tolerance to further injury when exposure continues."
RECANZONE, GREGG H. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> plans to teach monkeys to discriminate between certain sounds
in two different ways. He then intends to damage small areas of
their brains to see whether they can perform one trick better than
the other. He says that he really has no idea what will happen.
JACK, RICK is trying to find a way to transplant pig organs
into rhesus monkeys without killing them. He is testing an experimental
concoction that he hopes will stop organ rejection. He will treat
three monkeys for 60 days with the chemical, run a few tests and
then transplant a pig kidney into them. He hopes they will live
for a while. At the same time, he will transplant a pig kidney into
a fourth monkey who has not had the treatment. He knows this will
kill this monkey. And probably the pig.
REEDER, DEEANN M. "This study proposes to examine the
effects of repeated or chronic stress in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri
sciureus) and titi monkeys (Callicebus moloch).... Although many
aspects of the response to acute stress has been characterized in
these species, the ability to compensate for the glucocorticoid
rise associated with the stress response has not been studied nor
has the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors. I will separate
animals from their social group and place them in a novel environment
daily for eight weeks in order to examine both the transient and
permanent effects of repeated psychological stress in adult monkeys"
Deeann is a graduate student.
ROBERTS, JEFFREY A. < email@example.com
> has tested 55 aged rhesus monkeys' learning and memory abilities
and compared the results with young monkeys. He has determined that
both groups seem equally able to learn, but old monkeys¹ memories
are less efficient. Duh.
SALOMON, DANIEL R. "We started by creating a new strategy
to render the monkeys diabetic and insulin-dependent. After 4 weeks,
two insulin-dependent monkeys were transplanted intrathymically
with human fetal islets... The animals are presently just 3 months
post transplant, healthy and clinically stable. We have learned
alot about insulin therapy, dosing, and complications of the cyclosporine
and RAD as well as gained experience caring for immunosuppressed
SMITH, DAVID GLENN < firstname.lastname@example.org
> is attempting to discover just how interrelated the Center's
rhesus monkeys are to each other. Wouldn't one expect a major breeder
of monkeys to have maintained detailed breeding records?
SMITH, LLOYD H. <email@example.com>
states, "The long term objective of this research is to establish
a reliable nonhuman primate model for human papillomavirus
( HPV) genital tract infection and disease."
SOLNICK, JAY V. <firstname.lastname@example.org>
"Eleven rhesus monkeys were hand reared from birth and documented
by endoscopy, serology, and urea breath test to be free of infection
with H. pylori. The animals were randomly divided into a control
group (N=2), a group receiving oral urease with E. coli LT adjuvant
(N=4), and a group receiving intramuscular urease with a novel adjuvant
(N=5). Immunizations were delivered a total of 4 times, followed
1 week later by challenge with H. pylori derived from rhesus monkeys.
Three weeks after immunization the animals were endoscoped and biopsies
were obtained for quantitative culture and histology. All animals
also underwent repeat urea breath testing. The results indicated
that all animals were infected to varying degrees. There was no
relationship between quantitative culture and immunization, or between
gastric mucosal inflammation and immunization. These results
indicate that previous data in mice which suggested that urease
might serve as an effective vaccine may not be relevant to primates."
[emphasis added. It should be noted that Solnick attemps to generalize
his results from eleven rhesus monkeys to the entire Order which
includes over 200 species. Most primate vivisectors make the same
SRETAVAN, DAVID W. comments, "Prior investigations
have indicated that one retina from a rhesus monkey fetus
contains roughly 1.6 million retinal ganglion cells. The combined
total of 3.2 million retinal ganglion cells from both eyes of one
fetus should provide ample tissue for the isolation of gene fragments.
Retinal tissues from a rhesus monkey fetus are currently being
processed in this study for gene identification." After
all, what's one more baby monkey?
TARANTAL, ALICE F. < email@example.com
> is tickled pink about her discovery that chronic dosing (daily?
hourly? a continuous drip?) of nitric oxide synthase to a
pregnant monkey (of some unnamed species) causes her baby to quit
TUSZYNSKI, MARK H. plans to damage the spinal chord of four
monkeys to cause paralysis in one leg. He will then inject nerve
growth factor into that region of their spinal chord to see whether
it fixes them up. He has been performing similar experiments since
VALVERDE, CELIA R. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> experiments with various chemicals for use as anesthesia in macaques.
VANDEVOORT, CATHERINE A. < email@example.com
> is using crab-eating macaques to search for a sperm vaccine. The
injection sites are prone to develop chronic inflammatory lesions
(non-healing swollen sores).
VAN ROMPAY, KOEN K. A. < firstname.lastname@example.org
> reports, "...we inoculated 12 newborn macaques with
PMPA- resistant SIVmac and six animals were started on PMPA- treatment
at 3 weeks of age. The six untreated animals had high
viremia, rapid immunosuppression and died between 7
and 14 weeks of age." More blood sacrifice to $cience.
VERSTRAETE, FRANK J.M. <email@example.com>
"The California Regional Primate Research Center routinely
performs crown amputation with vital pulpotomy on maxillary canine
teeth of adult male (- 7 years of age) rhesus macaques in order
to reduce self-trauma and injury to staff or cage-mates. The failure
rate of this procedure is anecdotally high at the CRPRC... Crown
amputation with pulpotomy on maxillary canine teeth was performed
on 7 animals, and subgingival amputation on 13 animals. The preliminary
results indicate an unacceptably high failure rate of the latter
procedure, and this technique will not be used any further. Appropriate
therapeutic measures were taken to treat the affected animals."
WINE, JEFFREY is analyzing macaque DNA in the hope that
mutations can be found and reinforced through selective breeding
which will mimic human genetic disease. He envisions colonies of
monkeys with genetic illnesses.
YILMA, TILAHUN <firstname.lastname@example.org> infects newborn
macaques with SIV.
Fetal Surgery in the Primate: III. Maternal Outcome after Fetal Surgery
(Adzick) [From the Physician's
Committee for Responsible Medicine's examination of March of Dimes
This experiment looked at maternal safety in a series of in utero
fetal surgeries that were performed on 94 pregnant monkeys. There
were different types of fetal surgery, including 46 cases where
either a urinary tract obstruction or hydrocephalus was created
in the fetus as part of other experimental protocols. Another 26
involved chronically chair-restrained mothers with electrodes implanted
into the uterus to monitor uterine activity in response to drugs
and different surgical procedures. Monkeys were "conditioned" to
restraining chairs in a routine of five days of chair restraint
followed by two days of caging. In the experiments designed to look
at uterine activity, there was a fetal death rate of 89 percent
which the researchers partly attributed to the "profound combined
insult of maternal restraint, fetal surgery, and chronic catheterization
of the uterus," effects which had been previously documented by
other researchers. The experimenters note that the drug regimens
to prevent uterine contractions may have been ineffective because
of the magnitude of these stimuli. (It should be noted that although
the papers describing these individual experiments did not mention
funding by the March of Dimes, these experiments were part of the
March of Dimes-supported research paper, Fetal Surgery in the Primate
III, which looked at the maternal outcome of these experiments.)
This current paper, Fetal Surgery in the Primate III, examined
maternal complications after fetal surgical procedures done on 94
pregnant monkeys. This paper did receive funding from the March
of Dimes. The authors concluded that, although serious maternal
complications occurred, many are avoidable. There were three maternal
deaths, five uterine ruptures, and five cases of wound infection
or dehiscence. One "anesthesia-related death occurred during a case
in which there was no designated anesthesiologist." The authors
add, "Another maternal death secondary to eclampsia was also avoidable,
since vigilant monitoring of maternal blood pressure was not performed
after the immediate post-operative period. Of note, monkeys are
quite susceptible to both eclampsia and abruptio placenta." There
were five cases of uterine rupture, three of which‹including one
that resulted in maternal death‹were due to "technical failure of
a prototype absorbable staple device." The two uterine ruptures
not due to technical failure of the staple device occurred during
term labor. The authors concluded that "cesarean section delivery
should be mandatory after fetal surgery to avoid rupture of the
relatively fresh uterine wound."
(This would not surprise any obstetrician!)
All animals had been obtained from the California Primate Research
Center, Davis, California.
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